Testing web hook HTTP API callbacks with ngrok in Python

Today many API services provide webhooks calling back your website or system over HTTP. This enables simple third party interprocess communications and notifications for websites. However unless you are running in production, you often find yourself in a situation where it is not possible to get an Internet exposed HTTP endpoint over publicly accessible IP address. These situations may include your home desktop, public WI-FI access point or continuous integration services. Thus, developing or testing against webhook APIs become painful for contemporary nomad developers.

Screen Shot 2015-03-26 at 17.46.39

ngrok (source) is a pay-what-you-want service to create HTTP tunnels through third party relays. What makes ngrok attractice is that the registration is dead simple with Github credentials and upfront payments are not required. ngrok is also open source, so you can run your own relay for sensitive traffic.

In this blog post, I present a Python solution how to programmatically create ngrok tunnels on-demand. This is especially useful for webhook unit tests, as you have zero configuration tunnels available anywhere where you run your code. ngrok is spawned as a controlled subprocess for a given URL. Then, you can tell your webhook service provider to use this URL to make calls back to your unit tests.

One could use ngrok completely login free. In this case you lose the ability to name your HTTP endpoints. I have found it practical to have control over the endpoint URLs, as this makes debugging much more easier.

For real-life usage, you can check cryptoassets.core project where I came up with ngrok method. ngrok succesfully tunneled me out from drone.io CI service and my laptop.

Installation

Installing ngrok on OSX from Homebrew:

brew install ngrok

Installing ngrok for Ubuntu:

apt-get install -y unzip
cd /tmp
wget -O ngrok.zip "https://api.equinox.io/1/Applications/ap_pJSFC5wQYkAyI0FIVwKYs9h1hW/Updates/Asset/ngrok.zip?os=linux&arch=386&channel=stable"
unzip ngrok
mv ngrok /usr/local/bin

Official ngrok download, self-contained zips.

Sign up for the ngrok service and grab your auth token.

Export auth token as an environment variable in your shell, don’t store it in version control system:

export NGROK_AUTH_TOKEN=xxx

Ngrok tunnel code

Below is Python 3 code for NgrokTunnel class. See the full source code here.

import os
import time
import uuid
import logging
import subprocess
from distutils.spawn import find_executable


logger = logging.getLogger(__name__)


class NgrokTunnel:

    def __init__(self, port, auth_token, subdomain_base="zoq-fot-pik"):
        """Initalize Ngrok tunnel.

        :param auth_token: Your auth token string you get after logging into ngrok.com

        :param port: int, localhost port forwarded through tunnel

        :parma subdomain_base: Each new tunnel gets a generated subdomain. This is the prefix used for a random string.
        """
        assert find_executable("ngrok"), "ngrok command must be installed, see https://ngrok.com/"
        self.port = port
        self.auth_token = auth_token
        self.subdomain = "{}-{}".format(subdomain_base, str(uuid.uuid4()))

    def start(self, ngrok_die_check_delay=0.5):
        """Starts the thread on the background and blocks until we get a tunnel URL.

        :return: the tunnel URL which is now publicly open for your localhost port
        """

        logger.debug("Starting ngrok tunnel %s for port %d", self.subdomain, self.port)

        self.ngrok = subprocess.Popen(["ngrok", "-authtoken={}".format(self.auth_token), "-log=stdout", "-subdomain={}".format(self.subdomain), str(self.port)], stdout=subprocess.DEVNULL)

        # See that we don't instantly die
        time.sleep(ngrok_die_check_delay)
        assert self.ngrok.poll() is None, "ngrok terminated abrutly"
        url = "https://{}.ngrok.com".format(self.subdomain)
        return url

    def stop(self):
        """Tell ngrok to tear down the tunnel.

        Stop the background tunneling process.
        """
        self.ngrok.terminate()

Example usage in tests

Here is a short pseudo example from cryptoassets.core block.io webhook handler unit tests. See the full unit test code here.

class BlockWebhookTestCase(CoinTestRoot, unittest.TestCase):

    def setUp(self):

        self.ngrok = None

        self.backend.walletnotify_config["class"] = "cryptoassets.core.backend.blockiowebhook.BlockIoWebhookNotifyHandler"

        # We need ngrok tunnel for webhook notifications
        auth_token = os.environ["NGROK_AUTH_TOKEN"]
        self.ngrok = NgrokTunnel(21211, auth_token)

        # Pass dynamically generated tunnel URL to backend config
        tunnel_url = self.ngrok.start()
        self.backend.walletnotify_config["url"] = tunnel_url
        self.backend.walletnotify_config["port"] = 21211

        # Start the web server
        self.incoming_transactions_runnable = self.backend.setup_incoming_transactions(self.app.conflict_resolver, self.app.event_handler_registry)

        self.incoming_transactions_runnable.start()

    def teardown(self):

        # Stop webserver
        incoming_transactions_runnable = getattr(self, "incoming_transactions_runnable", None)
        if incoming_transactions_runnable:
            incoming_transactions_runnable.stop()

        # Stop tunnelling
        if self.ngrok:
            self.ngrok.stop()
            self.ngrok = None

Other

Please see the unit tests for NgrokTunnel class itself.

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2 thoughts on “Testing web hook HTTP API callbacks with ngrok in Python

  1. Hey Mikko, I wondered if you would mind trying to run your unit tests with green (I’m the author). I see that your unit tests are being run with pytest, and I’m trying to be pretty compatible with nose and pytest, so I’m curious as to whether green works on your tests or just crashes and burns. “pip install green” and “green yourprojdir” if you’re interested.

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